Introduction to Biotechnology
Although there are many definitions to describe biotechnology but in simple terms it is modern biological sciences which use living organism to make products for the benefit of us i.e. humans. Biotechnology although draws on the pure biological sciences including Genetics, Microbiology, Animal cell culture, Molecular biology, Biochemistry, Agriculture, Embryology, Cell biology but in many instances is also dependent on knowledge and methods from outside the sphere of biology like Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Chemical Engineering, Bioprocess Engineering, Information Technology, Robotics etc. etc. The word biotechnology is a cross between the Greek words ‘bios’ (everything to do with life) and ‘technikos’ (involving human knowledge and skills). Biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet.
In India or anywhere in World, BioPharmaceuticals is the major subsector of Biological Sciences or Modern Biology after which follows Agribiotech and Bioservices. Biological Database
Academics Study Courses in Biotechnology
Courses in Biotechnology after 10+2
Candidates interested in the field of Biotechnology can find a variety of Undergraduate courses both in India as well as abroad after 12th class studies with science as the main subject. They can apply for courses like Bachelor of Engineering in Biotechnology, Bachelor of Science in Medical Biotechnology and B.Tech in Biotechnology.
• Bachelor of Engineering in Biotechnology (B.E)
• Bachelor of Technology in Biotechnology (B. Tech)
• B.Tech. + M.Tech. (Dual Degree)
• Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology (BSc)
• Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Biotechnology
• Bachelor of Science in Medical Biotechnology
• Bachelor of Science in Zoology and Animal Biotechnology
• Bachelor of Science + Master of Science in Biotechnology (Dual Degree)
• Advanced Diploma Course in Biotechnology
• Diploma in Biotechnology Engineering
• Certificate Course in Biotechnology
• Certificate Course in Advance Biotechnology
• Certificate in Biotechnology and Plant Tissue Culture
Courses in Biotechnology after BSc/BE/BTech
• M.Sc. – Biotechnology
• M.Tech – Biotechnology
• M.Sc. – Bioinformatics
• M.Sc. – Industrial Microbiology
• M.Sc. – Microbial Technology
• M.Sc – Nanobiotechnology
• M.Sc. – Wildlife Sciences
• M.Tech – Bio Chemical Engineering
• MBA – Biotechnology Management
Courses after MSc/M Tech in Biotechnology
• MPhil in Biotechnology or Life Sciences
• PhD in Biotechnology or Life Sciences
• PDF- PostDoctrol Fellowship
Carrer and Jobs in Biotechnology
After graduation, post graduation and PhD, one can choose career suitable to his/her qualification and experience. Below list is given here of options available to choose from, however there are many more other options available to explore the field.
Some of the careers after Biotechnology studies are:
• Medical Biotechnologist
• Agricultural Biotechnologist
• Biological Forensic Analyst
• Bioprocess Engineer
• Biosafety Regulator
• Environmental Biotechnologist
• Fermentation Scientist
• Human Geneticist
• Medical Biochemist
• Plant Breeder
• Plant Molecular Biologist
• Plant Pathologist
• Technical Sales Representative
• Veterinary Virologist
• Patent Attorney
and many many more…
PhD in Biotechnology/ Life Sciences Entrance Exams
After choosing M.Sc Biotech /Life Sciences for career it is always beneficial to clear any National, State or other JRF examinations() during or after M.Sc. These exams provides gatepass to pursue M.Phil and PhD in reputed Indian universities. Also some institutes seeks M.Sc and NET as essential eligibility for scientific positions. For International scholarship positions keep visiting these websites
Biotecnika (Indian), Scholarship Positions
After clearing CSIR-UGC-NET/GATE a large number of options are available for students to pursue PhD along with handsome fellowship and a chance to work globally on Scientific issues. NET –LS qualified students are eligible for Lecturership in any Indian University.
List of PhD entrance examinations in India
1. CSIR-UGC-JRF –NET-LS
List of Major MSc/ PhD Biotechnology/ Life Sciences Entrance Exams in India
IISc Bangalore | TIFR, Mumbai / NCBS, Bangalore | AIIMS, New Delhi | IIT-JAM (Mumbai/Roorkee) | University of Delhi South campus, New Delhi | Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai Combined Biotechnology Entrance Examination (Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi) | PGI, Chandigarh | AMU | Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi | Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi | ACBR, New Delhi | University of Hyderabad | BHU, Varanasi | Devi Ahilya Bai University, Indore | Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) combined MSc. Entrance Exam | TERI (Tata Energy Research Institute), New Delhi | Bhartiya Vidyapeeth University, Pune (Deemed Univ.) | University of Baroda, Gujarat | Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi | Banasthali University, Rajasthan | Forest Research Institute (Deemed University), Dehradun
List of Reference Books for MSc/ PhD Biotechnology/ Life Sciences regular studies and entrance exams.
Text Book of Biology: NCERT XI and XII,
Biology by Raven and Johnson
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
Biochemistry by U Satyanarayana and U Chakrapani
Biochemistry by Donald Voet and Judith Voet
Principles and Techniques by Keith Wilson and John Walker
Essential Microbiology by Stuart Hogg
Microbiology by L.M. Prescott, J.P. Harley and D.A. Klein
Introduction To Genetic Analysis Griffiths 8th Edition
Concepts of Genetics by Klug and Cummings
Human Molecular Genetics by Tom Strachan & Andrew P
Cell and Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology of the Cell by Bruce Alberts
Molecular Cell Biology by Lodish
Immunology by Janis Kuby
Immunobiology by Janeway
Essential Immunology by Roitt
Recombinant DNA Technology
Sambrook & Russel – Molecular Cloning – Vol. 1, 2, 3
Cloning and DNA analysis by T.A. Brown,
Plant Tissue Culture by M.K. Razdan,
Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology
Plant Physiology by Salisbury and Ross
Developmental Biology by Scott F. Gilbert
Ecology and Evolution
Text Book of Biology: NCERT XI and XII,
Instant notes on Ecology
Basic Ecology by E.P. Odum
Bioprocess Engineering Principles, by Pauline M. Doran
Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, by Shuler and Kargi
Principles of Fermentation Technology, by Stanbury, Hall and Whitaker
Introduction to Bioinformatics by Attwood
Bioinformatics by David W Mount
Introductory biostatistics by Chap T Le
Concepts of Physics (Part 1 and 2) by H C Verma
Text Book of Physics: NCERT XI and XII
Text Book of Chemistry: NCERT XI and XII,
Physical and Organic Chemistry by O P Tandon
Mathematics and Analytical Aptitude
Text Book of Mathematics: NCERT XI and XII
Quantitative Aptitude by R S Aggarwal
Biotechnology/Life Science Scholarships
1. CSIR- Junior Research Fellowship: Via conducting all India National Eligibility Test (NET), Twice a year- June and December’s second Sunday. Fellowship of Rs. 16000+HRA pm plus a contingency grant of 20000 p.a. for the first two years; and for the next three years Rs.18000+HRA pm + contingency grant of Rs.20000 pa.
2. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Fellowship
Eligibility: Students having M.Sc. degree who qualify NET-CSIR examination and opt for Ph.D/research are short-listed on the basis of merit obtained in NET-CSIR exam, and invited to take are another examination, and depending upon their performance they are selected for this Fellowship. Emoluments are paid as per rules, Rs. 10,000/- p.m. plus HRA, Rs. 15,000/- plus HRA for the first and second year respectively. The Fellowship also carries a contingency grant of Rs. 50,000 for the purpose of doing research. Only Ph.D/research students who qualify the NET, CS1R exam and are among the top 20% candidates of the selection test are eligible for this Fellowship.
3. ICMR JRF – Junior Research Fellowship Examination: for students of M.Sc. Biochemistry, Medical biotechnology etc. Fellowship is Rs 8000 pm for first two years and Rs 10000 pm for remaining two years. Visit: http://www.icmr.nic.in/jrf.htm.
ICMR SRF – Senior Research Fellowship: For working professional in govt. research lab or university with 2 year research. /teaching experience, to pursue research leading to Ph.D/MD etc. in biomedicine.
ICMR – Short Term Research Studentship For Medical Students:
MBBS. For familiarizing students with research techniques, methodology.
4. ICAR SRF Senior Research Fellowship (SRF): Offered to all Ph.D Animal Genetics and Breeding students who are admitted to in NDRI/IVRI. Duration: 3 years. Fellowship amount: Rs. 9500/- per month in 1st and 2nd year and Rs. 10,000/- per month in 3rd year; and a contingent grant of Rs. 10,000/- per annum.
5. DBT-JRF (Department of Biotechnology)– Junior Research Fellowships Granted Via conducting a exam called -Biotechnology Eligibility Test (BET) for MSc biotech students with 60% marks; fellowship can be taken in any University/Institute in India where the candidate get him/herself registered for PhD; Fellowship is for 3 years extendable for 2 more years based on performance. By the end of second year, JRF is upgraded to SRF after assessment. JRF and SRF are Rs. 8,000/-and 9,000/- per month respectively + HRA as per host Institute, plus research contingency of Rs.30,000/- pa
6. DBT– Post Doctoral fellowship in Biotechnology and Life Sciences: For candidates having PhD/MD/MS in Biomedical Sciences/Life Sciences. Selection via interview conducted at IISc Bangalore. Fellowship is 12,000 pm and contingency grant of 50,000 pa for two years. Application invited approx. in: March and October.
7. DBT National Assistance Scheme
DBT, Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India, invites applications from Indian nationals for the award of Biotechnology National Associateship for pursuing advanced research or undergoing specialised training in Indian research Institutes/laboratories in the priority areas of Biotechnology
Eligibility:The applicants should possess a Ph.D/M.D. degree in areas related to biotechnology.
8. DBT Post-Doctoral Fellowship Program
DBT Post-doctoral fellowship programme is implemented through Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The fellowship is tenable in Research Institutions/Universities including non-profit R&D Institutions within India.
Eligibility: Ph.D. in Science, Engg. or M.D or M.S. degree in any area of medicine with research interests in Biotechnology and Life Sciences and a good academic record.
9. DBT National Bioscience Award for Career Development
DBT, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt, of India, invites nominations from scientists/ innovators/entrepreneurs/ institutions/companies both in public as well as private sector for outstanding contributions for a new process, product development and commercialization of a technology or a product in the areas of biotechnology and biological sciences including agriculture, biomedical and environmental sciences for the above award.
Nature of the Award: Each award carries a cash amount of Rs. l.00 lakh, a citation and a research grant of 3.00 lakhs per year for 3 years upto 10 such awards.
Eligibility: The nominee should be a citizen of India or an Indian institution or an Indian company both in public as well as private sector, be actively involved in the development of biotechnology processes and products and commercialization of technologies or products based on indigenous research.
Mode of selection: The selection of candidates for the award would be based purely on scientific excellence, on the recommendation of an expert committee constituted for this purpose by Department of Biotechnology. The contribution made by the nominee though his / her work done in India, especially during the last 5 years will be a major consideration in the selection for the award. The nominations should include a brief project proposal for future research along with bio-data
10. DBT Research Award for Women
Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science & Technology, invites nominations of women scientists who are currently working in the areas of biology and biotechnology and have made outstanding contributions in research, product and technology development.
Nominations for National Woman Bio-scientist Award (Senior/Young) and for Special Award for a Woman Scientist for Awareness Generation on Biotechnology. Visit: http://dbtindia.nic.in
11. Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics Scholarship
Invites applications from Indian nationals for selection of “Undergraduate Associates” under the auspices of the Centre for Advanced Research & Education (CARE) of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Kolkata.
Eligibility: Candidates from the first year Science undergraduate programme (B.Sc/Integrated M.Sc. in Physics/Chemistry/Biological Sciences) and who have secured a minimum of 80% marks in Science and Mathematics and at least 75% in aggregate in Class 12th Secondary School Board Examination are encouraged to apply. The final selection amongst the short listed candidates will be on the basis of an interview where the candidates needs to display resourcefulness. Passion for scientific research as well as knowledge of scientific concepts.
12. Post Graduate Scholarships for professional Courses for SC/ST candidates.
For Post-Graduate Level studies in professional subjects at Indian Universities and Colleges. Fellowship tenure up to PG completion. Scholarship-Rs. 5,000 p.m. with the Contingency grant of Rs.15,000 p.a for professional courses; and for other courses Rs. 3,000 p.m. with the contingency of Rs.10,000 p.a.. Contact: Joint secretary (SA), University Grants Commission, UGC block, Delhi University, south campus, Benito Juarez Marg, New Delhi- 100 021.
13. TATA Innovation Fellowship sponsored by DBT
PhD in life sciences with innovative work and publications. Duration: 3 years, extendable to 2 more years. Scholarship amount: Rs.20,000 per month excluding salary from host institute. Rs. 5 lakh contingency grant per year. Application invited approx. in: December. Contact: Dr. Meenakshi Munshi, Principal Scientific Officer, Department of Biotechnology, Block-2, 6-8th Floor, CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi – 110 003.
International Scholarship in Biotechnology/Life Sciences
1. DBT Associate Young Scientist Scheme
Eligibility: Applicants should possess PhD/M.D. degree in the area related, to life sciences/biotechnology or medicine with an excellent record of research contribution in his/her field of research. They should hold regular/ permanent positions in Government recognized research and academic institutions/universities and should be actively engaged in research in the above areas.
Duration of the Award: The duration of the award is for a period of two months to one year, the applicant would indicate the duration. However, no award would be considered for more than one year
2. DBT Integrated Manpower Development Program
Eligibility: Ph.D./M.D. degree in an area related to Biotechnology, with a good record of research contribution in his/her field of research. They should hold regular/permanent positions in research and academic institutions and should be actively engaged in biotechnology R&D work.
Two categories of Associateships, namely, long-term and short-term Associateships are awarded. The Long-term Associateship is awarded for a period of one year only and it is not extendable. The short-term Associateship is normally awarded for three months. However, the short-term Associateship may be awarded for a maximum period up to six months in cases where a longer duration is necessary and justified. The Long-term Associates are entitled to (a) Monthly Associateship @ US $ 2000/- or its equivalent in the country of study, (b) Preparatory allowance of Rs. 12000/- (one time grant), (c) Cost of air passage in economy class by Air India for joining the overseas laboratory and back. The short-term Associates are entitled to (a) Monthly Associateship @US $ 2400/- or its equivalent in the country of study, (b) Preparatory allowance of Rs. 10000/-(one time grant), (c) Cost of air passage for joining the overseas laboratory and back.
3. A.M.M. Arunachalam–Lakshmi Achi Overseas Loan Scholarship Interest Free Loan Scholarship for pursuing Post Graduate / Doctoral overseas studies in Engineering Science and Medicine.
4. Aga Khan Foundation International Fellowship Program
For PG studies to financially needy students from developing country. Scholarships are awarded on a 50% grant: 50% loan basis. Application invited approx. in: June or July.
5. Ministry of Human Resourse Development International Scholarships
For MS/PhD, and short-term research work at abroad.
6. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Undergraduate Scholarship Program (UGSP)
It is for students from disadvantaged backgrounds to pursue biomedical science careers at the NIH. Number of scholarships: Approx. 15. Scholarships amount: up to $20,000 per year to pay for tuition, educational expenses and reasonable living expenses. Duration: Up to 4 years.
7. National Overseas Scholarships/ Passage Grant for SC and Backward castes/tribes/ Minorities
For P.G./PhD/Research and Training abroad. Total income from all sources of the employed candidate or his/her parents/guardians shall not exceed Rs.25,000/-.
8. Rhodes Scholarship
Granted to 6 Indian Students for PhD studies at Oxford University. Contact: The Office of Indian Secretary, Rhodes Scholarship Selection Committee, PO Box 2108, Delhi 110007.
9. The Gates Cambridge Scholarships
Number of scholarships: more than 100 excluding USA students. Graduate students from outside the United Kingdom are eligible to study any Graduate to PhD course at the University of Cambridge. Prior admission at Cambridge is compulsory. Scholarships cover the full cost of study at Cambridge including tuition and fees and a maintenance allowance. Application invited approx. in: December for M.Phil. & PhD.
10. Bharat Petroleum – Scholarship for higher studies
For PG studies in India and Abroad; Prior admission in any institute is compulsory; announced every year: Application invited approx. in May.
11. Bristish Chevening Scholarships
To undertake PG study in UK. Up to 100 Indian professionals receive financial assistance each year. Announced every year.
Visit: www.chevening.com,. email@example.com.
12. Cambridge-Nehru Scholarships
To pursue Doctoral programme. University Fee, air fare, Maintenance allowance provided: Application invited approx. in July. Contact: Nehru Trust for Cambridge University, Teen Murti House, New Delhi – 11.
13. Developing Solutions Joint Chevening Scholarships:
Around 30 students selected from the developing Commonwealth countries including India in the areas of Environment, Food, Health & Technology. Award includes- Full tuition fees and maintenance. Duration: 1 year;
14. Developing Solutions Taught Masters Scholarship for India: For Masters degree programmes at The University of Nottingham, in the areas related to biology, Environment, Food, Health and Technology. A small number of 100% Tuition Fee Scholarships, plus an additional 54 Tuition Fee Scholarships – normally 20% to 30%, are available for new students from India. Application invited approx. in: May. For detailed information on forms & types of courses available
15. DFID Commonwealth Shared Scholarship Scheme (CSSS)
For graduate students from the developing Commonwealth countries including India to pursue Masters course. Number of awards: approx 3. Subject areas include Agriculture and related subjects at University of Oxford. Award includes fees, invited approx. in: Feb.