by A. B. Gunjal1, B. P. Kapadnis2
1Asian Agri Food Consultancy Services, Pune 411001, Maharashtra, India
2Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India
The heavy metal pollution in water is a very serious problem which causes toxic effects on humans, animals and plants. The fungi are excellent biosorbent for heavy metals. The fungi used in this study were isolated from the compost and compost yard soil and identified as Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus and studied for their ability to sequester heavy metals from solution. The sequestration of metals was studied using live and dead biomass. The sequestration of Cd was 6.51 mg/g by the live biomass of Aspergillus spp. The sequestration of Zn, Cd and Pb was 29.37, 27.89 and 30.59 mg/g respectively from mixed metal solutions using the dead mixed biomass. The sequestration of Zn, Cd, Pb and Ni was 6.27, 3.58, 6.51 and 3.91 mg/g respectively from individual metal solutions using dead mixed biomass. In comparison to live biomass, dead biomass was found to be more effective in the sequestration of metals. Biosorption of heavy metals will be very easy and rapid for control of heavy metal pollution.
Keywords: Biosorption. Pollution. Sequestration. Biomass. Heavy metals. Electroplating
Heavy metal pollution usually arises from electroplating, plastics manufacturing, pigments, mining, fertilizers and metallurgical processes. Heavy metals of concern include Pb, Cr, Hg, Ur, Se, Zn, Cd, Ni, As, Ag, Au, etc. (Ahalya et al. 2003). Metals are mobilized and carried into food web as a result of leaching from waste dumps, polluted soils and water. The metals increase in concentration and are passed onto the next higher level, called as biomagnification (Paknikar et al. 2003).
Biosorption is non-directed physicochemical interactions that occur between metals and microbial cells (Shumate and Strandberg 1985). It offers several advantages over the conventional methods viz., clean and cost effectiveness, efficiency, and minimization of chemical or biological sludge, requirement of additional nutrients and regeneration of biosorbent with possibility metal recovery.
Fungal biomass has been found to be excellent biosorbent for heavy metals (Holan and Volesky 1994; Volesky and Holan 1995). Fungi are known to have good metal uptake systems with metabolism-independent biosorption being the most efficient. Potential of filamentous fungi in bioremediation of heavy metal containing industrial effluents and wastewaters has been…
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